To halt or reverse disease progression and achieve
lung regeneration, there is a need for earlier identification and treatment of these diseases. A precision
medicine approach to treatment is also important, involving the recognition of disease subtypes, or
endotypes, according to underlying disease mechanisms, rather than the current “one-size-fits-all”
approach. This review is based on discussions at a meeting involving 38 leading global experts in
chronic lung disease mechanisms, and describes advances in the understanding of the pathology and
molecular mechanisms of COPD and IPF to identify potential targets for reversing disease
degeneration and promoting tissue repair and lung regeneration.